CHM 102 General Chemistry (II)  2+1+0 (3 Credits).

Derivation of ideal gas equation  leading to Boyles law and avogadro’s hypothesis. A simplified treatment  (e.g particle in a box). The assumption for ideal behaviour and their limitation fro real gases at high pressure and low temperature. Boltzman distribution and molecule speed. Boltzman constant. Liquid ; the kinetic concept of the liquid state and simple kinetic/molecular description of melting, vapourization and vapour pressure, saturated and unsaturated vapours. Phase equilibra; phase rule, equilibra involving one , two and three components. Solids; lattice structure and spacing. Sodium chloride as ionic lattice. Cu as a cubic closed packed metal lattice. Granite and diamond; their properties as macromolecular structures. Lattice energy and forces between the particle in atomic molecular and ionic lattice.

Electrolysis; The factors affecting the mass of substance liberated during electrolysis. Relationship between farady and the Avogadro constant and the charge of the electron. Chemical Stoichiometry, oxidation and reduction.

Equilibria; Chemical equlibria; reversible, reactions and dynamic equilibrium, factors affecting chemical equilibra, the Le Chatelliers principle. Equilibrium constraints; their definition and calculation in terms of concentration. Effect of temperature on equilibrium constants. Ionic equilibra; Brownted Lowry theory of acid and bases. Strong and weak acids in terms of conductivity. Strong and weak electrolyte. Degree of dissociation. The ionic product of waterKw, pH and calculation, pH indicators; choice of indicators, buffer solutions.

Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Hybridization in carbon Sp3, Sp2 Sp.Nomenclature and classes of organic compounds. Homologous series, functional groups. Isolation and purification of organic compound. Types of organic reactions: elimination, addition, substitution and rearrangement. Isomerism and types: structural- chem.., position, metamerism and tantomerism. Stereoisomerism – optical and geometrical isomerism. Chemistry of hydrocarbons: Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes, alkyl, halides and Grignard reagent with respect to – nomenclatures preparations, properties  and application.

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